Archives for posts with tag: Racism

If you ever happen to leave the confines of your house, exposure to corporate and public advertisement in the public space is inevitable. You want to escape it, but you can’t. It’s there, wherever you go. Generally static, large and lit, our gaze is ‘naturally’ attracted to these public banners. Of course, media psychologists, have carefully studied this. To think just how much planning and scientific inquiry goes into marketing and advertisement to manipulate the individual’s mind is sickening. But inciting mindless consumerism is one thing, fostering fear through racism is yet another.

A most recent example is the Transport for London’s public campaign warning people against taking “unbooked minicabs.” Although I am not familiar with the phenomenon of unbooked minicabs, it is quite clear that any such campaign has as aim not to protect citizens, but to strangle an emerging informal and autonomous economic sector in times of austerity. How this campaign tackles the issue is interesting.

strangers-car-img

One form is public advertisement or “warnings”, predominantly placed on the walls of the London underground. In the first image (above) we can observe the ‘shady’ gaze of a male. Not just any male, of course. The pigment of his skin is of dark complexion, his eyes brown and his eyebrows black. Underneath the image of the gaze, the warning reads: “If your minicab’s not booked, it’s just a stranger’s car”.  The dark male is thereby implicitly linked to the stranger, or better understood as the significant Other.  If generally the stranger, the Other, already evokes feelings of unease, distance and fear (think how from an early age we were taught to “never talk to strangers!”), the dark male — socially stigmatized through racist discourse as menacing, unlawful, and ‘abnormal’–exacerbates these sentiments of distrust, angst and terror even further. The magic is that the advertisers, whether consciously or not, play on the imagined, though deeply ingrained, fear of dark (male) strangers. The artists of this ad thereby strip themselves from any need/responsibility of informing the public of the possible “risks” of taking an unbooked minicab. It is already implied as the power of our imagination does the job for them. If it doesn’t, a more creative extension of the campaign below might give you a clue.

A short clip featured on the Transport for London website and Facebook page, gives us an even more racist representation. The taxi driver/the stranger is represented by the non-white male foreigner, immigrant, Other. The passenger, the eventual victim, is the naive white woman. We don’t know what happens next as the driver locks the doors of the car parked in some isolated area without network, but we can assume it, of course. The dark male stranger has been attributed uncontrollable sexual lust, an association that is not new in the White man’s imagination of its significant other. Indeed, the dark stranger is often eroticized in the sexual fantasies of the white man. The White woman, on the other hand, fragile, naive, and beholder of beauty, is the victim of the story. Neither is this one a new representation. Not only does the white, beautiful and vulnerable woman merit our sympathy, but also our unquestionable protection. Especially from the dark savage! Here again, does the advertisement fail to tell us explicitly what risks are involved in taking these unbooked cabs. Instead it plays with our internalized fears through public displays of racist and gendered representations.

If the advertisement fails to tell us the risks, it most importantly fails to challenge us on why people would engage in ‘unlawful’ activity to begin with. In fact, this is exactly that the advertisement wants to achieve. Hence, the resort to racist representations. Linking race and illegal activity in our imagination does not raise questions, it perpetuates these associations as normal, natural, and the norm on the one hand; and sparks fear and suspicion, on the other.

 

“Because we believe in her,” reads a heartening UNICEF advertisement depicting a young girl in veil, at Schiphol’s international airport in the Netherlands.

When I asked a woman to step aside to take a picture of the banner, she looked puzzled. Perhaps unsurprising, as for the uncritical passerby there might be nothing unusual about the picture. But there’s something quite troubling when an NGO can manage to convey a message with only six glossy words and a simple picture of a smiling child.

The Child’s Double-Imagery

At first glance, the image radiates the innocence of a child. But this, through our white male western gaze, is quickly tarnished by the garment that covers her head; a symbolic manifestation of oppression, gender inequality, cultural inferiority and general backwardness. Her gender, age and ethnicity inform us she is inherently passive, subjugated, vulnerable, powerless; a victim. The picture needs to say no more.

At the same time, our western gaze allows us to identify a common humanity: the innocence of a child. And it is this common humanity that stirs the conviction of our cultural superiority that accords us the moral duty and responsibility to “civilize” and “rescue” the inferior “other.”

“Because we believe in her” vs. “Because they don’t believe in her”

Behind the self-identifying wording “we” or “us,” the modern, civilized, moral and omniscient white hero, whose high ethical standards are unquestioned, is uncovered.  This is juxtaposed to the implied but unknown “them” who, in turn, are imagined as repressive, illiberal and apathetic; the villain, the lesser human. They do not care about their children, not least the female ones. But hey, fortunately, We do!

It is appalling for one that a humanitarian organization of such high standards manipulates pre-established prejudice and stereotypes, which abound in the increasingly Islamophobic Dutch society, to obtain funding for its projects. But it is perhaps more worrying that these visual and narrative discourses of Orientalist nature have been so deeply internalized that this advertisement’s consumer immediately perceives the young girl as a victim because of a headscarf and the color of her skin.